Using a new set of stimuli, we again showed that when congruity and integrativity are disentangled, congruity effects are limited to high-integrative word pairs. However, one could argue that the SOA used in Experiments 1 and 2 was moderately long i. Such a time window might have allowed participants to engage in slow-acting, strategic processes which could somewhat strengthen the influence of integrativity. It is noteworthy that this argument is somewhat incompatible with Estes and Jones as well as Jones and Golonka who found that integrative priming is reduced or even eliminated, rather than enhanced, at longer SOAs.
However, we wanted to rule out the possibility that our findings are simply due to a specific SOA value. Moreover, since one of our arguments relies on the reduction or non-appearance of an effect the EP in the low integrativity condition , it is crucial to conduct well-powered experiments. In contrast to the relatively small sample size in Experiment 1 , Experiment 3 uses a larger sample to ensure satisfying statistical power. The same materials were used as in Experiment 1. Eighty-one students of the University of Heidelberg participated in the study.
In most parts, this third experiment was a conceptual replication of the first two priming experiments. As soon as the target was classified as either positive or negative, it was erased. After a 2,ms inter-trial interval, the next trial began. Each word pair was presented twice, yielding a total of experimental trials. Latency data was again prepared in the same way as in Experiments 1 and 2 0.
Results from Experiment 3 : mean reaction time ms as a function of prime valence, target valence, and integrativity. As in Experiments 1 and 2, we also conducted an item analysis F2 statistic. Overall, the findings obtained across all three experiments converged in a consistent pattern: An asymmetric congruity effect was only obtained under high integrativity. When integrativity was low, no congruity advantage was observed. The moderating role of integrativity was comparable across three evaluative priming experiments that varied the sets of verbal stimuli and SOAs.
These clear-cut findings are perfectly in line with the integrative-priming results reported by Estes and Jones for semantic priming. They also challenge classic accounts of EP and provide support for the idea that relational integrativity of prime and target can facilitate target evaluation. The difference is that due to the nature of the EP task classifying as positive or negative our research was not about a main effect of integrativity, but about the potential of integrativity to potentiate evaluative congruency effects.
As predicted, then, the orthogonal variation of valence congruity and integrativity — two intrinsically confounded factors in EP experiments — lent support to integrativity as a crucial determinant of EP effects. Although the experiments yielded the typical asymmetric valence congruity effect that is commonly considered essential to EP, this was exclusively due to high-integrativity pairs.
EP effects disappeared for low integrativity, although valence congruity was effectively manipulated in both subsets of prime-target pairs. It should be noted that it remains unclear whether the observed pattern of target reactions was due to facilitated processing of target words or a response-compatibility of prime-target responses. Because integrativity is normally confounded with valence congruity — most integrative pairs share the same valence — it is possible that apparent congruity effects in former EP studies may to an unknown degree reflect the impact of integrativity, which has never been controlled before.
Future research will have to test this possibility systematically, using both different verbal and non-verbal stimuli e. Although the present work does provide some evidence that these integrative priming effects are consistent over relatively short and moderate SOAs, looking at other presentation formats subliminal durations; pictures instead of words or paradigms e.
We do not feel justified to argue that relational integrativity as it is presented here is the only or the most important determinant of priming across all paradigms. Furthermore, the concept of integrativity might not be directly applicable to all implicit attitude procedures e. On a very general level, factors which facilitate joint encoding should strengthen the evaluative effects and factors which disrupt joint encoding should lead to weaker evaluative effects. Thus, granting that the various task settings allow two stimuli to be easily integrated vs.
For the time being, however, we showed that integrativity is indeed of great importance for evaluative priming. Note that integrativity constitutes a more restrictive condition than valence congruity; faster responding on congruent trials is only observed for integrative pairs, not for non-integrative pairs.
For facilitation to occur, congruent stimuli also have to be integrative. Moreover, the crucial condition for facilitation is further restricted by valence asymmetry. This generative potential was indeed shown in the pilot study to be systematically higher for positive than for negative stimulus pairs. Such a propensity to generate compounds from positive stimuli is well in line with a growing body of evidence for the density model Unkelbach et al. More plausibly, though, it reflects the same generative potential to create original links and compounds that was also shown here to determine the emergence and strength of EP effects.
However, since an asymmetric congruity effect emerged even when controlling for integrativity Experiment 2 , the positivity effects seem to be at least partially independent of integrativity. The evidence presented here calls for a revised perspective on EP. EP is an extreme version of categorical priming, based on the assumption that responses to all positive vs.
Whereas previous EP research and theorizing did not explicitly reduce the domain of all stimuli sharing the same valence, it may not be too surprising that this assumption turns out to be unrealistic. Valence congruity is simply too broad and unrestricted a condition to render priming functional and informative.
The present findings suggest that integrativity is a promising candidate for a more refined conception of valence congruity. When a prime and a target solicit the generation of a new compound, which goes beyond the old semantic attributes of the component stimuli, the vividly experienced valence of the compound seems to facilitate congruent evaluative reactions in target judgment tasks. It could also be the case that reaction times were influenced by a response compatibility mechanism.
For integrative pairs, positive targets should lead to an increase in speed and negative targets to a decrease. For non-integrative pairs, positive targets should lead to a decrease in speed and negative targets to an increase. However, we did not find such an interaction in any of our three experiments. An open question is whether the notion of integrativity can be extended to nonverbal e.
Would, for instance, positive or negative facial expressions, or film clips, only facilitate the evaluation of congruent trait words if they are applicable cf. Would negative words trigger avoidance responses only when verbal primes are relevant to forming an avoidance compound i.
Furthermore, we presented stimuli in a way which is typical for priming experiments: Nouns served as primes and adjectives served as targets. This setup might facilitate a specific type of relational integration e. If future research lends further support to the proposed generative version of priming, involving the creation of new compounds rather than the retrieval of stored semantic attributes, this process should plausibly take place in working memory rather than in semantic long-term memory e.
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However, whereas in the original compound-cue model the compound formation is dependent on the frequency of co-occurrence in texts and the strength of association at encoding, it is not necessarily the case within the present approach as integrative priming occurs for concepts which are not always associated or similar. An evaluative consistency facilitates affirmative responses whereas an evaluative inconsistency facilitates negative responses.
To circumvent grammatical intricacies of noun pairs in the German language, we opted for a type of combination frequently used in priming research, namely, noun adjective pairs; regarding relational integrativity, nouns and adjectives are typically related to each other based on a concept-has-property-relation e. All stimuli and their ratings can be found in the Appendix. It should be noted that a standard ANOVA affords a conservative test of an asymmetric interaction that is mainly due to a facilitation effect for positive targets following positive primes.
As a consequence, the strength of the basic congruity effect i. To avoid the problem of defining a theoretically appropriate contrast, though, we rely here on a conservative ANOVA test. We conducted a power analysis based on a meta-analysis by Herring et al. For the evaluative decision task, Herring et al.
However, assuming the parameters above, this experiment still had a power of. In Experiment 3 , we thus decided to sample 81 participants and this gave us a power of. This analysis suggests that there was sufficient power to detect an effect, given it is actually there. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming. Article First Online: 21 December Theoretical accounts of evaluative priming EP Classical accounts Consistent with the initial claim of EP as a universal and automatic effect, classical theoretical accounts refer to invariant structural causes, attributing EP either to associative proximity of congruent stimuli in semantic long-term memory or to enhanced compatibility or matching of motor submotor or motivational-affective responses elicited by congruent stimuli Fazio et al.
Integrative priming One intriguing variant of such internally generated prime-target construal was recently pointed out by Estes and Jones for semantic priming. Method Materials Twenty students of Heidelberg University were recruited for a material testing study. Procedure of main experiment Thirty-four students of the University of Heidelberg participated in small groups of up to six.
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The left part of Fig. Open image in new window. Method Materials Thirty students of Heidelberg University participated in a similar pilot study to Experiment 1.
Results and discussion The latency data were prepared in the same way as in Experiment 1 2. Data were again still skewed and therefore normalized by applying a log transformation prior to averaging. As evident from Fig.
Method Materials The same materials were used as in Experiment 1. Results and discussion Latency data was again prepared in the same way as in Experiments 1 and 2 0. Participants were generally faster in high- than low-integrative trials. Alexopoulos, T. The impact of open and closed mindsets on evaluative priming. Cognition and Emotion, 26, — Anderson, J. Human associative memory. Washington, DC: V. Google Scholar. Brunswik, E. The conceptual framework of psychology. Oxford England: Univ.
Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming
Chicago Press. Burghardt, J. A meta-analysis of sequential affective and evaluative priming: Effects, theories, and recommendations for applications. Manuscript submitted for publication. Chan, E. Reversing the affective congruency effect: The role of target word frequency of occurrence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, — CrossRef Google Scholar.
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Priming in concert: Assimilation and contrast with multiple affective and gender primes. Social Cognition, 26 6 , — Freytag, P. An adaptive-learning approach to affect regulation: Strategic influences on evaluative priming. Cognition and Emotion, 25, — Relation-based combinations versus property-based combinations: A test of the CARIN theory and the dual-process theory of conceptual combination. Journal Of Memory And Language, 42, — Glaser, J. When fair is foul and foul is fair: Reverse priming in automatic evaluation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, — Hager, W. PubMed Google Scholar. Hermans, D. A time course analysis of the affective priming effect. The affective priming effect: Automatic activation of evaluative information in memory. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 83— Affective priming using a color naming task: A test of an affective-motivational account of affective priming effects. Herring, D. On the automatic activation of attitudes: A quarter century of evaluative priming research. Psychological Bulletin , 5 , — Higgins, E.
Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13 2 , — Isen, A. The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, — Jones, L. Different influences on lexical priming for integrative, thematic, and taxonomic relations. Frontiers In Human Neuroscience, 6. Klauer, K. Affective priming: Findings and theories. Klauer Eds. Mahwah: Erlbaum. Priming of semantic classifications: Late and response related, or earlier and more central?.
List-context effects in evaluative priming. How attitudes guide memory-based judgments: A two-process model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, — Contrast effects in spontaneous evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, — Curated by Florian Steiniger, the exhibition at Kunsthalle Krems was choreographed by the artist in person, who specially designed new sculptural installations for it.
The exhibition becomes a passage, a journey. The publication is complemented by articles by Nicolas de Oliveira and Nicola Oxley. Does it merely make use of its repertoire of shapes and colors or does it have recourse to the concepts behind them as well? Taking as its starting point the question of to what extent the production of present-day art latches onto our art heritage, Museum Haus Konstruktiv is presenting a major group exhibition with a statement character, showing works by 34 artists from Germany and abroad.
Wie geht die Gegenwartskunst mit der konstruktiven, konkreten und konzeptuellen Kunst des Jahrhunderts um? Wie steht sie zu deren Ideen und Errungenschaften, wie zu ihren teils utopischen Projekten? Based on the shape of a swastika, the composition provoked heated discussions and was the subject of great controversy at the time.
The texts written for the publication are complemented by numerous illustrations. Play is the central element of the creative process. A three-part publication conceptualized by artist Olaf Nicolai. The concept for the project was produced by artist Olaf Nicolai, who, together with design studio Daily Dialogue Maximilian Schachtner, Malin Schoenberg, Marie Damageux , was also responsible for the design.
The catalog documents the exhibition curated by Thomas Hensel and Robert Eikmeyer, with its focus on the subject of play — as a fundamental element of the creative process — with more than works from over years. One particular highlight is the presentation by American artist Liam Gillick. Mai wurde dieser wieder ausgegraben. Yang entschied sich, anstelle eines Katalogs zum Projekt ein Kinderbuch zu machen. Er lud den japanischen Kinderbuchillustrator Yuuki Nishimura ein, das Buch zu illustrieren. It is based on a myth according to which, in ancient China, ice blocks were buried in the winter months and then served as ice in summer.
Aber muss das so sein? In Form von Zeichnung, Malerei und Film fragt er nach dem, was uns bewegt. Um wessen Raum kann es sich dabei handeln? Wer und was verortet uns wo und wann? Wo kennen wir uns aus? But does this have to be the case? Are the resultant dynamics inevitable? Olaf Osten is interested in when we set off for somewhere, when we stay somewhere, and where this somewhere might be. Using drawings, paintings and film, he asks about the reasons that guide us.
This book documents his work and his exhibitions over the past five years. Whose territory might this be? Who or what holds sway over us? Over whom or what do we hold sway? Who and what locates us where and when? What are we familiar with? In other words, what is our territory?
Hat aber dennoch seinen Sinn. Optional ein Plexiglasschuber. In summa Bilder. Und auf gut 90 Prozent dieser Bilder finden sich keinerlei Menschen wieder.
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Aber was sagt uns das? Vorerst einmal nichts. Fotografien, entstanden im Libanon, in Japan und in den Vereinigten Arabischen Emiraten in den Jahren zwischen und Mit einer kleinen, handlichen, analogen Leica Kamera. Nevertheless, it does make sense. Three books. An optional Plexiglas slipcase. Three seemingly arbitrary places in the world. A total of pictures. And what does this have to say to us?
In the first instance, nothing. What we have in our hands here is a very special, personal. With a small, handy, analog Leica camera. Surveying areas. Classifying things for himself. When we look at it consciously, nature becomes a landscape, a landscape show, one that is both personal and shaped by agriculture. Hammerstiel, Michael Goldgruber oder Margherita Spiluttini. The picturesque places of longing by Emil Jakob Schindler, Maria Egner and Egon Schiele are contrasted with a contemporary perspective on the agricultural landscape, e. Hammerstiel, Michael Goldgruber and Margherita Spiluttini.
This up-to-the-minute topic is addressed by several works, in the powerful photographs of Ekaterina Sevrouk and equally in a large-format fence installation by Iris Andraschek and Hubert Lobnig. Wer landet als Erster auf dem Mond? Neil Armstrong ist der erste Mensch auf dem Mond und hisst dort die amerikanische Flagge.
The Moon, often sung about, often painted, a subject of longing, a place with magic powers. The face of the Moon, light in the darkness of night, a poetic metaphor and, as it were, a visible projection of our desire to discover and investigate the world beyond our planet. Which would be the first to land on the Moon? In the end, it was NASA that was to succeed in pulling off this coup in Neil Armstrong was the first man on the Moon and he planted an American flag there.
Kunsthalle Krems is taking advantage of the occasion to mount a multifaceted exhibition on the subject of the Moon. To accompany the exhibition, Ticket to the Moon devotes itself to. It shows and discusses works as of the race to the Moon in the s, direct reactions to the lunar landing as of , as well as current artistic positions, some of them by younger artists. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Contemporary Dialogues with F.
Messerschmidt Exploring the face and its expressions or rather the meanings ascribed to these expressions represents a fascinating adventure, one which can look back over a long history in art. The exhibition at Kunsthaus Graz and the accompanying publication bring together works from the beginning of the century and contemporary work. Jochen Gerz arbeitet seit dem Ende der er Jahre mit neuen Medien.