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Discovery of Electron -- in HINDI

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Michael Faraday

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Published by Pierce Press About this Item: Pierce Press, Published by London: Longmans Green About this Item: London: Longmans Green, VG HB in purple cloth boards with faded spine. A few pencil marks in margins. Published by Longmans, Green and Co, London Blind-stamped mauve Cloth. A sound copy nonetheless. Size: 13 Cm X 18 Cm. Published by Longman,Green,and Co. About this Item: Longman,Green,and Co. Some damage and discolouration to the spine and boards, including bumped corners and split spine edges. There are pencil markings on the front end-paper and a name written on the half-title page, with annotations and underlinings throughout.

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It will have a general appearance commensurate with its age including age effects to page edges, binding and boards. Dust jacket is absent unless otherwise stated Usual signs of a well read book but good overall condition. From: Pendleburys - the bookshop in the hills Llanwrda, United Kingdom. No Jacket. Published by Cambridge University Press About this Item: Cambridge University Press, Appleton From: Shirley Dyess, Inc.

Appleton , Texas residents will have state tax added to their bill. Cover: 0. Reliable customer service and no-hassle return policy. Bookseller Inventory Appleton and Company, New York Appleton and Company, New York, Hard Cover. Recalling this decision later, he wrote: "the desire to grow intellectually did not forsake me; and, when railway work slackened, I accepted in a post as master in Queenwood College. Frankland and Tyndall became good friends. On the strength of Frankland's prior knowledge, they decided to go to Germany to further their education in science.

Among other things, Frankland knew that certain German universities were ahead of any in Britain in expe-rimental chemistry and physics. British universities were still focused on classics and mathematics and not laboratory science. The pair moved to Germany in summer and enrolled at the University of Marburg, where Robert Bunsen was an influential teacher. Tyndall studied under Bunsen for two years. Convert currency. Add to Basket.

Compare all 6 new copies. Condition: New. Never used! This item is printed on demand. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ Language: English. Such acoustic induction is apparently what lay behind his most famous experiment. On August 29, , Faraday wound a thick iron ring on one side with insulated wire that was connected to a battery.

He then wound the opposite side with wire connected to a galvanometer. He closed the primary circuit and, to his delight and satisfaction, saw the galvanometer needle jump. A current had been induced in the secondary coil by one in the primary. When he opened the circuit, however, he was astonished to see the galvanometer jump in the opposite direction.


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  • Somehow, turning off the current also created an induced current, equal and opposite to the original current, in the secondary circuit. A current thus appeared to be the setting up of such a state of tension or the collapse of such a state. Although he could not find experimental evidence for the electrotonic state, he never entirely abandoned the concept, and it shaped most of his later work. In the fall of , Faraday attempted to determine just how an induced current was produced. His original experiment had involved a powerful electromagnet created by the winding of the primary coil.

    He now tried to create a current by using a permanent magnet.


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    • He discovered that when a permanent magnet was moved in and out of a coil of wire, a current was induced in the coil. Magnets, he knew, were surrounded by forces that could be made visible by the simple expedient of sprinkling iron filings on a card held over them. The outside of the disk would cut more lines than would the inside, and there would thus be a continuous current produced in the circuit linking the rim to the centre.

      This was the first dynamo. It was also the direct ancestor of electric motors , for it was only necessary to reverse the situation, to feed an electric current to the disk, to make it rotate. While Faraday was performing these experiments and presenting them to the scientific world, doubts were raised about the identity of the different manifestations of electricity that had been studied. Or were they different fluids following different laws? Faraday was convinced that they were not fluids at all but forms of the same force, yet he recognized that this identity had never been satisfactorily shown by experiment.

      For this reason he began, in , what promised to be a rather tedious attempt to prove that all electricities had precisely the same properties and caused precisely the same effects.

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      The key effect was electrochemical decomposition. Voltaic and electromagnetic electricity posed no problems, but static electricity did. As Faraday delved deeper into the problem, he made two startling discoveries. First, electrical force did not, as had long been supposed, act at a distance upon chemical molecules to cause them to dissociate. Second, the amount of the decomposition was found to be related in a simple manner to the amount of electricity that passed through the solution.

      These findings led Faraday to a new theory of electrochemistry. The electric force , he argued, threw the molecules of a solution into a state of tension his electrotonic state.

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      When the force was strong enough to distort the fields of forces that held the molecules together so as to permit the interaction of these fields with neighbouring particles, the tension was relieved by the migration of particles along the lines of tension, the different species of atoms migrating in opposite directions. The amount of electricity that passed, then, was clearly related to the chemical affinities of the substances in solution.

      Since the amount of electricity passed through the conducting medium of an electrolytic cell determined the amount of material deposited at the electrodes, why should not the amount of electricity induced in a nonconductor be dependent upon the material out of which it was made? In short, why should not every material have a specific inductive capacity? Every material does, and Faraday was the discoverer of this fact.

      By Faraday was able to bring forth a new and general theory of electrical action. Electricity, whatever it was, caused tensions to be created in matter. When these tensions were rapidly relieved i. Such substances were called conductors. In electrochemical processes the rate of buildup and breakdown of the strain was proportional to the chemical affinities of the substances involved, but again the current was not a material flow but a wave pattern of tensions and their relief.

      Insulators were simply materials whose particles could take an extraordinary amount of strain before they snapped. Electrostatic charge in an isolated insulator was simply a measure of this accumulated strain. Thus, all electrical action was the result of forced strains in bodies. The strain on Faraday of eight years of sustained experimental and theoretical work was too much, and in his health broke down. For the next six years he did little creative science.

      Not until was he able to pick up the thread of his researches and extend his theoretical views.

      Faraday as a Discoverer

      Since the very beginning of his scientific work, Faraday had believed in what he called the unity of the forces of nature. By this he meant that all the forces of nature were but manifestations of a single universal force and ought, therefore, to be convertible into one another.

      In he made public some of the speculations to which this view led him. A lecturer, scheduled to deliver one of the Friday evening discourses at the Royal Institution by which Faraday encouraged the popularization of science, panicked at the last minute and ran out, leaving Faraday with a packed lecture hall and no lecturer. Many years later, Maxwell was to build his electromagnetic field theory upon this speculation. When Faraday returned to active research in , it was to tackle again a problem that had obsessed him for years, that of his hypothetical electrotonic state.

      He was still convinced that it must exist and that he simply had not yet discovered the means for detecting it.

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      Once again he tried to find signs of intermolecular strain in substances through which electrical lines of force passed, but again with no success. He suggested that Faraday experiment with magnetic lines of force, since these could be produced at much greater strengths than could electrostatic ones. Faraday took the suggestion, passed a beam of plane-polarized light through the optical glass of high refractive index that he had developed in the s, and then turned on an electromagnet so that its lines of force ran parallel to the light ray.

      This time he was rewarded with success. The plane of polarization was rotated, indicating a strain in the molecules of the glass. But Faraday again noted an unexpected result. When he changed the direction of the ray of light, the rotation remained in the same direction, a fact that Faraday correctly interpreted as meaning that the strain was not in the molecules of the glass but in the magnetic lines of force.

      The direction of rotation of the plane of polarization depended solely upon the polarity of the lines of force; the glass served merely to detect the effect. To his surprise he found that this was in fact so, but in a peculiar way. Some substances, such as iron , nickel , cobalt , and oxygen , lined up in a magnetic field so that the long axes of their crystalline or molecular structures were parallel to the lines of force; others lined up perpendicular to the lines of force. Substances of the first class moved toward more intense magnetic fields; those of the second moved toward regions of less magnetic force.